An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing, as an immigrant, in a country other than that of their citizenship.  

The word comes from the Latin terms ex ("out of") and patria ("country, fatherland").  In common usage, the term is often used in the context of professionals or skilled workers sent abroad by their companies.

Repatriation is the process of returning a person - voluntarily - to his or her place of origin or citizenship.

This includes the process of returning military personnel to their place of origin following a war. It also applies to diplomatic envoys, international officials as well as expatriates and migrants in time of international crisis. For refugees, asylum seekers and illegal migrants, repatriation can mean either voluntary return or deportation.

The term may also refer to non-human entities, such as converting a foreign currency into the currency of one's own country.